The Younger Futhark
The Younger Futhark came into use in Scandinavia around the eighth century, when changes in the Old Norse language required corresponding changes to the runic alphabet. The number of runes was reduced from 24 to 16 and several runes came to represent multiple sounds.
'th' was used for þ and ð; 'u' for u and o; 'k' for k, g, and ng; 'i' for i and e; 't' for t and d; and 'b' for b and p. The new letter, 'r', was originally used for an 'er-like' sound in Old Nordic but became y in later Scandinavian languages.
Fé - F
Fé signifies Cattle, which is a strong symbol for wealth and prosperity, a source of food, of stability, security and growth.
Úr - U
Úr signifies Wild Ox, which is usually seen as a symbol for strength, power and primal force. It can also mean a renewel, as in out with the old and in with the new.
Thurs - Th
Thurs signifies Thorn, a symbol linked to Thor and his hammer. A defence against enemies, security, protection.
Ós - A
Ós signifies Ash, Yggdrasil, The World Tree. The Asa-Gods, The Aesir. Divine inspiration.
Reidh - R
Reidh signifies Journey, implying, not just physical travel, but a quest for spiritual enlightenment.
Kaun - K / C
Kaun signifies Torch, light after a period of darkness. Order from chaos, creative fire.
Hagall - H
Hagall signifies Hail, often seen as a symbol of damage and destruction, or a warning of illness.
Naudh - N
Naudh signifies Need, the idea of binding and constraint, and its shape reflects that of a knot in a piece of string
Iss - I
Iss signifies Ice, it symbolizes danger and impediment.
Ár (Ar) - A
Ár signifies Harvest, a rune related to the autumn, season of harvesting and plenty. A rune symbolic of success.
Sól - S
Sól signifies Sun, A rune of light, fire and happiness, symbolizing power, joy and success.
Týr - T
Týr signifies Warrior, and is a rune associated with the God Tyr. It stands for bravery against adversity.
Bjarken - B
Bjarken signifies Birch. It symbolises new birth, either literally or in the birth of a new enterprise, or personal growth.
Madhr - M
Madhr signifies Man, or husband and is the rune for human kind. It can also relate to family.
Lögr - L
Lögr signifies Water, or a lake. The power of the tides, and plant growth.
Ýr (Yr) - Y
Ýr signifies Yew. It is a symbol of protection used for warding off evil.